From here to there: Topics in Transportation November 2016 SPRAY 29 incident to transportation” and found nothing. Interesting enough, however, I did find a more quantitative definition of the elusive term in the unlikeliest of places—10 CFR §71.71, which are regulations that apply to shipments of radioactive material. Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, section 71.71 defines Normal Conditions of Transport as: Arguably, their definition of heat seems too low given that cities such as Phoenix, Las Vegas, Yuma and Palm Springs have average highs over 100°F (38°C) during the summer months. According to the Guinness Book of World Records, the official highest recorded temperature is now 56.7°C (134°F), which was measured on July 10, 1913 at Greenland Ranch, Death Valley, CA. The average daily maximum temperature in the hottest inhabited place on Earth (Dallol, Ethiopia) is 41.1°C (106°F). Nevertheless, we all know, intuitively, that the average temperature inside a closed freight container or tractor trailer in the summer is closer to 130°F. Maybe this is why the reference temperature of +55°C (131°F) is used throughout the HMR? Therefore, shippers would be wise to consider the term “Heat” to include temperatures of up to +55 °C (131°F). With respect to “Reduced External Pressure,” 10 CFR §71.71 defines it as being as low as 3.5psia. However, most commercial aircraft are limited to a maximum altitude of 45,000 ft. Temperatures at these altitudes are typically around -40°C (-40°F). At that reference temperature and altitude, the ambient air pressure would actually be 1.21 psi. Indeed, the U.S. DOT’s HMR refers to a 95 kPa pressure differential test being required for the inner packagings of combination packagings tendered for air transport. A pressure drop of 95 kPa at max altitude would mean an ambient air pressure of less than 1.0 psia. Therefore, shippers should also consider that “Reduced External Pressure” could be as low as 0.74 psia (or -70°C at 45,000 ft). With respect to vibration, I would recommend that shippers consult 49 CFR §178.608, which outlines requirements for the vibration test performed on UN-approved fiberboard boxes. Since the regulations state that non-specification packagings must be capable of passing the prescribed tests, it stands to reason that we refer to the test criteria in the vibration standard. Vibration Test Three sample packagings, selected at random, must be filled and closed as for shipment. The three samples must be placed on a vibrating platform that has a vertical or rotary doubleamplitude (peak-to-peak displacement) of one inch. The packages should be constrained horizontally to prevent them from falling off the platform, but must be left free to move vertically, bounce and rotate. The test must be performed for one hour at a frequency that causes the package to be raised from the vibrating platform to such a degree that a piece of material approximately 1.6mm (0.063 inch) thickness (such as steel strapping or paperboard) can be passed between the bottom of any package and the platform. Pass/Fail Criteria A package passes the above tests if there is no rupture or leakage from any of the samples. No test sample should show any deformation that could adversely affect transportation safety or any distortion liable to reduce packaging strength. Certainly, if the conditions outlined herein were considered, one could argue that the packaging to be used was capable of meeting the “conditions normally incident to transportation,” and would, therefore, be defined as a “strong outer packaging” and approved for the transport of these types of dangerous goods. For additional information on strong outer packagings and conditions normally incident to transportation, you may contact the U.S. DOT PHMSA website at http://phmsa.dot. gov/hazmat or call ShipMate, Inc. at (310) 370-3600. Spray Heat An ambient temperature of 38°C (100°F) in still air. Cold An ambient temperature of -40°C (-40°F) in still air and shade. Reduced External Pressure An external pressure of 25 kPa (3.5 psi) absolute. Increased External Pressure An external pressure of 140 kPa (20 psi) absolute. Vibration Vibration normally incident to transport. Water Spray A water spray that simulates exposure to rainfall of approximately 5cm/h (2in/h) for at least one hour. Free Drop A free drop through the distance specified below onto a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, striking the surface in a position for which maximum damage is expected. Corner Drop A free drop onto each corner of the package in succession, or in the case of a cylindrical package onto each quarter of each rim, from a height of 0.3m (1ft) onto a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface. Compression The package must be subjected, for a period of 24 hours, to a compressive load applied uniformly to the top and bottom of the package in the position in which the package would normally be transported. The compressive load must be the greater of the following: • The equivalent of five times the weight of the package; or • The equivalent of 13 kPa (2psi) multiplied by the vertically projected area of the package. Penetration Impact of the hemispherical end of a vertical steel cylinder of 3.2cm (1.25in) diameter and 6kg (13lbs) mass, dropped from a height of 1m (40in) onto the exposed surface of the package that is expected to be most vulnerable to puncture. The long axis of the cylinder must be perpendicular to the package surface.
Spray November 2016
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